It is common for infants to spit up after a meal, but frequent vomiting among infants may be caused by GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
It refers to immaturity of lower esophageal sphincter function, manifested by frequent transient lower esophageal relaxations that results in retrograde flow of gastric contents into the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux is classified as follows:
Physiological reflux: These patients have no underlying predisposing factors or conditions. Growth and development are normal, and pharmacologic treatment is typically not necessary.
Pathological reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Patients frequently experience complications , requiring careful evaluation and treatment.
Secondary gastroesophageal reflux: This refers to a case in which an underlying condition may predispose to gastroesophageal reflux. Examples include asthma (a condition which may also be, in part, caused by or exacerbated by reflux and gastric outlet obstruction.